During the process of jig and fixture design, fabrication and assembly, there are a number of fundamental factors that need to be considered. These considerations are essential to increase productivity, product quality, interchangeability and improve the overall economy in batch production that result from the use of those jigs and fixtures.
Emphasis should be placed on safety and ease of handling for the design of jigs and fixtures. A good design makes it easy to clamp, load and unload a work piece to and from the jig or fixture. The clamping operation should not impede loading and unloading.
Points should be visible so they are easy to locate. This makes it easier to guide a tool into the fixtures. The blank should not move when clamp. A minimum of three points is used to locate a horizontal flat surface with the locating pins staying as far apart as possible.
The design of the jigs and fixtures should make the tools easy to handle while at the same time providing strong, rigid and stable support to the blank. The clamping of the blank in the jig or fixture should be effective, quick, strong and rigid, without interrupting any other operations. The clamp should be able to hold the workpiece firmly in place and is not affected by vibration, chatter or heavy pressure.
The supporting elements and system of the jigs and fixtures have to be strong and rigid enough so as to prevent damage due to clamping and cutting forces. The design should be able to support the part and the pressure of the work without allowing spring in the jig or the workpiece. The line of the clamping pressure should fall on or between stops to prevent spring in the work whereas the clamping strain should fall within the fixture.